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What is Deep Learning?

Deep Learning For Beginners

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Introduction – 

Deep learning (DL), a method of machine learning, enables computers to mimic how the human brain works. It is typically used to carry out classification tasks on image or non-visual data sets. Recent advancements in GPU technology have made deep learning a tool that defines the industry. Artificial intelligence, fraud detection, self-driving cars, and other technologies all make use of deep learning. Deep learning data scientists and machine learning engineers are always being sought after for these technologies.

We’ll assist you today in taking the initial step toward those thrilling careers. You will discover how deep learning functions, the reasons for its rising popularity, and how to put your first deep learning model into practice. Let’s start now!

Deep Learning
What is Deep Learning?

What is Deep Learning?

An artificial neural network-based machine learning algorithm known as “Deep Learning” (also known as “Deep Structured Learning”) was developed (ANN). Thanks to deep learning and other ANN techniques, computers can learn from examples in a way that is similar to the way the human brain does. This is accomplished by analysing the input data using a number of tiers of neural networks, which at each stage of the process modify the data and constrict the range of possible predictions.

Compared to conventional models, deep learning algorithms have several significant advantages Like –

  • Handling unstructured data: Deep learning models can automatically interpret unstructured data after being trained on structured data. This implies that firms can plug any available data they have without first formatting or standardising it.
  • Recognize unexpected patterns: For the majority of models, engineers are required to choose the pattern that the ML algorithm will search for. Beyond the correlations that are explicitly chosen, none are found. Deep learning algorithms can keep note of any correlation, even ones that developers don’t specifically ask for.
  • Unmatched accuracy: Compared to other techniques, deep learning produces findings that are more accurate and scale better with huge data sets.

The categorization patterns that match input data to a taught type are best suited for deep learning. In order to improve speech recognition, picture recognition, and natural language processing, DL approaches are commonly used (NLP). It has more recently been utilised to enable self-driving automobiles to recognise barriers and signage.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Deep Learning – 

  • ability to create new features from the little training data sets that are currently available.
  • can produce results for tasks that are dependable and actionable by using unsupervised learning approaches.
  • It cuts down on the amount of time needed for feature engineering, one of the activities involved in learning how to use machine learning.
  • Its architecture has evolved to be change-adaptive and flexible as a result of ongoing training.


Deep learning is becoming more and more popular, but it also poses some risks that need to be addressed: 

  • The entire training process depends on the constant supply of data, which reduces the room for progress.
  • With an increase in datasets, the cost of computational training rises noticeably.
  • Revision of errors is not transparent enough. There are no intermediary steps to support the claims of a particular defect. A full algorithm is changed in order to fix the problem.
  • The training of the data sets requires the use of expensive resources, quickly processing units, and potent GPUs.
Deep Learning
Advantages and Disadvantages of Deep Learning
Examples of Deep Learning – 

In this section, we talk about the key points and concerns related to deep learning.

Virtual Assistants: The essential skill required for voice and language translation in human speech is deep learning. Cortana, Siri, and Alexa are popular virtual assistant examples.

Vision for Driverless, Autonomous Cars: A human-like level of experience and knowledge is required to operate an autonomous vehicle, such a Tesla. A substantial amount of actual data is needed to comprehend real-world situations such as those involving roads, traffic lights, pedestrians, the meaning of various signs, speed limits, and many others. As a result of the algorithms’ increased efficiency due to the vast amount of data, the decision-making flow will also grow.

Service and Chat Bots: For the continual chatbot-human communication required for customer service, strong responses are required. Deep learning is needed for the training of the algorithms in order to reply to all the challenging inquiries and provide appropriate answers.

Translations: Deep learning supervision is necessary for autonomous speech translation across various languages. Tourists, travellers, and government officials can all benefit from this system.

Facial Recognition: From being utilised in security to the Facebook tagging tool, recognition has a variety of uses. In addition to its importance, there are a number of issues with it. to recognise the same person in spite of changes to their appearance, such as weight gain, weight loss, a beard or the lack of one, new hairstyles, etc.

Shopping and Entertainment: Your data and purchasing patterns are stored by all of the shopping and entertainment apps, including Netflix, Amazon Prime, and Myntra, in order to display recommendations for future purchases and viewing. The title is always “You may like to watch/buy.” The Deep Learning system becomes increasingly effective at generating decisions as more data is fed into it.

Pharmaceuticals: adjusting a patient’s medication based on their specific ailments and DNA. The top pharmaceutical corporations are now interested in deep learning because it has expanded the range of these applications. In addition, there are numerous other deep learning applications, including those for fraud detection, virtual recognition, healthcare, and entertainment.

How Does Deep Learning Work?

Supervised and unsupervised learning methods are used by deep learning algorithms to train the outputs using the supplied inputs. Check out the figure below; the connecting circles are neurons. The three different hierarchies of layers known as the Input, Hidden, and Output Layers are used to categorise neurons.

  • The input data is received by the first neuron layer, also known as the input layer, and is then sent to the first hidden layer.
  • On the data that has been received, the hidden layers run the calculations. Choosing the number of neurons and hidden layers is the main issue in the building of neural networks.
  • The output layer then generates the needed output.

The main working process is as follows. When the computing method is explained, the next step is at this point. Each connection between neurons has weights, which represent the significance of the input information. A function called activation is employed to standardise the outputs.

Two crucial metrics are taken into account when training the network. The first is to produce a sizable data set, and the second is to have a sizable computing capacity. When referring to deep learning, the term “Deep” describes the number of hidden layers that the model uses during the training phase.

The operation of deep learning can be summed up using the following four points:

  • A variety of binary True/False questions are combined using ANN.
  • removing numerical values from data chunks.
  • sorting the information based on the responses received.
  • The data’s labelling or tagging is a last point.
Deep Learning
How Does Deep Learning Work?
Applications of Deep Learning – 

1. Healthcare – Deep Learning plays a significant role in a variety of applications, particularly when GPU processors are available, such as medical picture analysis and disease cure. Additionally, it helps medical professionals like doctors, nurses, and clinicians diagnose patients, treat them with the right drugs, and save them from harm.

2. Stock Analysis – When training the deep learning layers, quantitative equity analysts can use many more variables, such as the number of transactions made, the number of buyers and sellers, the previous day’s closing balance, etc. to determine the trends for a particular stock and whether they will be bullish or bearish. Aspects like return on equity, P/E ratio, return on asset, dividend, return on capital employed, profit per employee, total cash, etc. are taken into account by qualitative stock analysts while training the deep learning layers.

3. Fraud Detection – These days, hackers, particularly those operating out of the dark web, have discovered ways to steal money digitally around the world utilising a variety of programmes. Using a variety of criteria, like router information, IP addresses, etc., deep learning will learn to detect these kinds of fraudulent online transactions. Due to cost savings, autoencoders also help financial organisations save billions of dollars. By identifying the outliers and looking into them, these fraudulent transactions can also be found.

4. Image Recognition  – Assume that the city police department has a database of city residents. If they wanted to find out who was responsible for crimes or acts of violence during public gatherings, they could use public webcams located throughout the city. CNNs (Convolution Neural Networks), a form of deep learning, might be highly beneficial in this scenario to find the offender.

5. News Analysis – The government spends a lot of time and effort combating the spread of misleading information and locating its source today. Deep learning can be used to forecast poll results, such as which candidate would win an election based on popularity or who would have the most social media likes, among other things. We can also use all these variables to analyse tweets sent by citizens of the country to determine which candidate would win the election. 

However, there are some drawbacks to it, such as the fact that we don’t know the data’s authenticity, such as whether it is genuine or fake, or whether the crucial information has been spread by bots.

6. Self Driving Cars – Self-driving cars employ deep learning to analyse the data they gather as they traverse a variety of landscapes, including mountains, deserts, and plains. Data can be collected via sensors, public cameras, and other sources, which will be useful for self-driving car testing and implementation. All training scenarios must be effectively handled, and the system must be able to verify this.

Characteristics of Deep Learning – 

The characteristics of deep learning are listed below:

1. Supervised, Semi-Supervised or Unsupervised – It is supervised learning when the category labels are present while the data is being trained. such as linear regression algorithms. Both logistic regression and decision trees make use of supervised learning. Unsupervised learning occurs when category labels are unknown at the time when data is being trained. Unsupervised learning is used by algorithms like Cluster Analysis, K-means clustering, and anomaly detection. When the data collection includes both labelled and unlabelled data, the learning process is referred to as semi-supervised. Semi-supervised learning is used by generative models, cluster assumptions, continuity assumptions, and graph-based models.

2. Huge Amount of Resources – For processing large workloads, it requires cutting-edge Graphical Processing Units. In the form of organised or unstructured data, a tremendous amount of data has to be handled using big data techniques. The amount of data input may occasionally affect how long it takes to process the data.

3. Large Amount of Layers in Model – It will be necessary to use a significant number of layers, such as input, activation, and output. There are times when the output of one layer can be fed to another layer by creating a small number of discoveries. These findings are then integrated in the softmax layer to generate a more thorough categorization for the output’s ultimate output.

4. Optimising Hyper-parameters – Because they provide a connection between layer predictions and final output predictions, hyperparameters like the number of epochs, batch size, number of layers, and learning rate must be carefully calibrated for a successful model. Overfitting and underfitting can be effectively managed with hyper-parameters.

5. Cost Function – It describes the model’s performance in terms of prediction and accuracy. For each iteration in the Deep Learning Model, the goal is to minimise the cost when compared to previous iterations. According to the various techniques employed, mean absolute error, mean squared error, hinge loss, and cross entropy are different types.

Conclusion –

The article on the fundamentals of deep learning is concluded with this.

  • In order to comprehend datasets and make effective decisions, deep learning is a branch of AI and ML that mimics how the human brain functions.
  • Deep learning utilises both structured and unstructured data for training.
  • Practical examples of deep learning are Virtual assistants, vision for driverless cars, money laundering, face recognition and many more.

Deep learning algorithms get more efficient the more they are used to doing things. It has the potential to develop into something amazing as technology advances through time.

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