We’ll talk about “Network Topology – Easy Classification for Beginners” today. We will address all of your network topology-related questions in this post and go over the benefits and drawbacks of various topologies.
Students studying computer science and information technology should pay close attention to this material, especially those planning to pursue careers in computer network architecture. Therefore, if this issue really interests you, remain tuned with us, and let’s get started.
What is a Network Topology?
The physical & logical configuration of a communication network’s components, such as links and nodes, is called the topology of the network. Switches, routers, and software having switch and router functions are frequently found in nodes. The most typical method for displaying network topologies is a graph.
Command and control radio networks, industrial field buses, and computer networks are just a few examples of the several types of telecommunication networks that can be defined or described using network topology.
Network topologies explain how networks are set up and where traffic flows are located in relation to one another. Network topology diagrams can be used by administrators to decide where each node should be located and the best path for traffic flow.
Types of Topologies:
1. Physical Network Topology: The arrangement of a network’s many components is known as its physical network topology. The various connectors often represent the physical network cables, and the nodes typically represent the physical network devices.
Examples of physical network topology include the BUS, STAR, MESH, TREE, and RING TOPOLOGIES.
2. Logical Network Topology: The arrangement of network nodes and devices to create a logical or physical structure is known as logical network topology. The network protocols that are used to regulate data flow throughout the network are dealt with by the logical topology.
The most popular protocol used for logical topology is the Ethernet Protocol. Examples of logical network topologies include TOKEN RING, which is classified as a logical ring topology, and TWISTED PAIR ETHERNET, which is classified as a LOGICAL BUS TOPOLOGY.
Why is Network Topology Important?
The topology of the computers is their physical location. It provides a visual depiction, such as a map diagram, of how the various network devices are interconnected. It displays the layout of the network and is comparable to a floor plan of a building.
A network’s topology has a big impact on how it works. The functionality of a network is directly impacted by its design. As a result, picking the appropriate network design can aid in improving performance because it improves energy efficiency and data transmission speeds.
Network Topologies Matter for the Following Reasons:
- The performance of the system is determined by the network topology.
- It chooses the kind of cable medium to connect the network.
- The cost of laying network cables depends on the structure of the network.
- Only certain topologies can be used with certain data access techniques.
In other words, network topology aids in our comprehension of the two key concepts. ONE: It enables us to comprehend the many components of our network and their connections. TWO, it demonstrates their interaction with one another and what to anticipate from their performance. Network topologies therefore play a significant role in computer network system architecture.
Classification of the Network Topology:
Network topology is the configuration of a network made up of nodes and connecting lines via sender and receiver. The different network topologies include:
1. Physical BUS Topology: A BUS Network is a type of network topology where nodes are directly connected to a BUS, which is a type of shared half-duplex link. It transmits data from one end to the other in a single direction. A station is a host in a bus network. Every station in a bus network will receive all network traffic, and the traffic each station generates has an equal priority for transmission. One network segment and collision domain are formed by a bus network. A drop cable is connected to the back cable using specialised connections called T-Connectors.
In a bus topology, every device utilises a single communication wire or line. Bus topology may encounter issues when several hosts are sending data at once. Therefore, to address the problem, Bus topology either uses CSMA/CD technology or designates one host as Bus Master.
- Small workgroup LANs (local area networks) with Thinnet Cable-connected machines employ bus topology.
- A single node can only broadcast at once. When one device needs to communicate with another, it sends the message intended for that device into the network.
- All devices receive the message, but only the node whose address corresponds to the message’s destination address will accept it.
- Departmental LAN hubs or switches are connected by trunk cables to create a bigger LAN. using backboneing to create campus-wide networks by connecting switches and routers.
- A linear bus is very simple to attach a computer or peripheral to, and it is effective for small networks.
- Comparatively speaking, this architecture needs less cable length than other topologies. As a result, it creates the most effective wiring system.
- It becomes a more affordable topology implementation when the minimum cable length requirement is met.
- By connecting cable with a connector or repeater, the linear architecture may be easily extended and is highly straightforward and dependable.
- In the network, collisions happen and cause packet loss.
- Depending on how the system has been configured, if any link or segment of the bus is severed, signal reflection brought on by the lack of electrical termination may result in the failure of all network transmission. Network flaws are challenging to pinpoint.
- Such networks are challenging to troubleshoot.
- If there is a break in the main cable, the entire network goes offline or splits into two distinct networks. Additionally, performance suffers when more machines are added.
EXAMPLES: Examples of the BUS TOPOLOGY are 10Base5 and 10Base2 Ethernet connections in a Local Area Network (LAN).
2. Physical STAR Topology: The most trustworthy and popular topology at the moment is called STAR Topology. As a star network, it also goes by that name. Each network component is physically connected to a hub, router, or switch in a star topology, which is a type of network topology. The connecting nodes of a star topology function as clients and the central hub serves as a server.
Each host is connected to the Central Hub in a star network. The simplest kind of message transmission involves the use of a single central hub. One of the most widely used topologies for computer networks is the star network. UTP Cable is typically utilised, with a maximum cable length of 100mm between the hub and the node.
- The star topology connects each host to the hub independently, minimising the effects of a transmission line failure.
- Thus, by sending data to and receiving data from the hub, each host can communicate with every other host.
- Every time a node sends data, the central hub receives the message and sends it on to every other node.
- Even though the message is sent to every device in the network, only the node whose address coincides with the message’s destination node will accept it.
- A star network architecture is straightforward to set up. This is so that when a new node is connected, only that specific node and a central component, such as the HUB, are involved.
- The other computers and their connections are unaffected if one node or its connection fails.
- It is simple to monitor and troubleshoot devices, and they may be added or removed without disrupting the network.
- As it travels via the central connecting device, the data is renewed.
- costly because of the quantity and size of cables required to connect each server to the main hub.
- A bus topology would require a shorter length of cable than this architecture does.
- Because it is the star’s central system, the hub requires greater resources and constant upkeep.
- Since each device must be connected to the central host, if the central device malfunctions, the entire network will likewise stop working.
3. Physical RING Topology: Each device in the RING Topology is connected serially to two other devices in a closed loop or ring pattern. Data is transferred from node to node, with each node handling a packet as it goes. The nodes are linked together in a closed-loop manner in the ring network topology. While some rings can only transmit data in one direction, others can transmit data in both directions.
When devices are connected in a “ring topology” network configuration, a circular data channel is created. Each networked device is connected to two other networked devices as though they were points on a circle. All the hardware arranged in a ring topology is referred to as a ring network.
- A ring topology is a type of Local Area Network (LAN) topology where every device has precisely two communicative neighbours.
- In a ring, messages typically move in a single direction. Any cable or device failure breaks the loop and brings the entire segment to a stop.
- A gadget must gather a unique electronic message called a “Token” before it may communicate data. Then, the message and the token move in a circular motion in a specific direction from one node to the next.
- The data is accepted and acknowledged by the station whose address coincides with the end address of the transmission.
- The data is then sent back to the original node for removal from the network and release of the token for use by other nodes.
- A bus topology is less efficient than a very orderly network where every device has access to the token and the chance to transmit.
- One station, referred to as a monitor station, is responsible for carrying out all operations. It does not need a central node to oversee connectivity between the computers, in contrast to a star topology.
- Because devices are arranged in a point-to-point line with one device on either side, it is very easy to install and alter since adding or deleting a device just involves moving two connections (each device is connected to its immediate neighbour).
- Longer distances can be travelled with STP cables without much signal loss. Data collision is not an issue because only one station can broadcast data at once.
- The entire network may have issues due to a single defective workstation. A dual ring or switch that closes the break can be used to fix this.
- In this design, troubleshooting is challenging, and adding or removing stations from between them might cause problems throughout the entire network.
- The number of nodes in the network directly relates to the communication delay.
- Additionally, ring network topologies are less secure and a little more challenging to modify.
4. Physical MESH Topology: A mesh network, also known as MeshNet, is a local network topology where the infrastructure nodes (such as bridges, switches, and other infrastructure devices) connect directly, dynamically, and non-hierarchically to as many other nodes as they can in order to route data from/to clients as effectively as possible.
In a mesh structure, there is no single point of connection. Instead, each node is linked by a single cable link to at least one other node and frequently to several others. Each node can send and receive messages from other nodes in order to communicate with them. The nodes serve as relays, sending messages to their intended recipients.
- A mesh topology is a network setup where each computer and network device is interconnected with one another.
- It functions like the Bus Topology, where a device accesses another device by putting the message addressed to that device in the network.
- All devices receive the message, and only the node whose address matches with the destination address of the data packet, accepts it.
- This topology setup allows for most transmissions to be distributed even if one of the connections goes down. It is a topology commonly used for wireless networks.
- As there are multiple connections with alternative paths between two nodes, this is the most reliable type of network topology. Communication within the network is guaranteed.
- Multiple connections mean each node can transmit to and receive from more than one node at the same time.
- Data is reliable because data is transferred among the devices through dedicated channels or links.
- The errors can be easily diagnosed. It provides more security and privacy.
- Installation and configuration are difficult.
- Complexity and the cost of setting up the network increases with increase in number of nodes.
- Difficult to troubleshoot due to its complexity and the cost of maintenance is also high.
- Many of the connections serve no major purpose. This leads to redundant network points.
One practical example of a mesh topology is the connection of telephone regional offices in which each regional office needs to be connected to every other regional office.
This type of topology is also used in Mission Critical Applications where a fault in the network cannot be tolerated. The Internet uses a Partial Mesh Topology.
5. Physical TREE Topology: A Tree Topology, or Star-Bus Topology, is a hybrid network topology in which star networks are interconnected via bus networks. Tree networks are hierarchical, and each node can have an arbitrary number of child nodes. A tree topology is a special type of structure where many connected elements are point-to-point arranged like the branches of a tree. For example, tree topologies are frequently used to organize the computers in a corporate network, or the information in a database. It is also known as Hierarchical Topology.
It usually consists of groups of star configured workstations connected to a central hub. This is the most common form of network topology in use presently. This topology imitates the extended Star topology and inherits properties of bus topology.
- A tree topology combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies.
- It consists of groups of star-configured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable.
- It acts like a Bus Topology. A hub accepts information from one node and sends it to the other nodes and hubs.
- Tree topologies allow for the expansion of an existing network, and enable schools to configure a network to meet their needs.
- It provides high scalability, as leaf nodes can add more nodes in the hierarchical chain.
- It allows more devices to be attached to a single central hub thus it decreases the distance that is traveled by the signal to come to the devices.
- One of the major advantages of this topology is that when one hub breaks down, only stations connected to that hub get affected. The rest of the network functions as usual.
- Tree network topologies allow for the expansion of an existing network.
- It allows the network to isolate and also prioritize different computers.
- Setting up a tree topology is complicated in comparison to a simple star or bus topology.
- If the central hub fails the entire system fails.
- Large cabling is required as compared to star and bus topology.
- The overall cost is high because of cabling.
- Maintenance and configuration of tree topology become difficult due to its large size. A lot of time is taken up for managing point-to-point connections, individual star networks, and identification of errors.
Above We Have Already Discussed The PHYSICAL NETWORK TOPOLOGY In Detail. Now We Are Going To Discuss LOGICAL NETWORK TOPOLOGY In-Depth.
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